The green pad is more aggressive than the orange pad. If things improved when you went to a more aggressive pad then I agree with TheGuz and LT4vert. You're dealing with a tough clearcoat. You might need to switch out that chemical guys single step compound for a system that has a heaving cutting compound (to remove the defects) and lighter polishing compound (to remove the micro-marring from the heavy cutting compound).
You may be able to keep the foam pads you have if you use a good compound like the FG300 listed above or Meguiars M101/M105. Then you can finish out with your orange foam pad with a polish like Meguiars M205.
If that doesn't work you'll probably need to pick up a microfiber cutting pad to replace the green pad as stated above. You can read this buffing pad guide
to understand the microfiber pad recommendation. Long story short the fibers in a microfiber pads are abrasive so it increases the cut you can achieve with the same compound.