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Old 09-05-2004, 05:08 PM   #1
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Default JRP's FAQ For Commonly Asked Questions

The following are answers to most of the common LS1 questions. I've compiled this info to save people from having to do the work. Since i have gone to great lengths to provide this info and its stickied....


FOR THE LOVE OF GOD PLEASE USE IT..



*** Flagrant disregard or plain laziness may result in your thread being locked and referenced here***


Table of Contents



ARP Flywheel Bolts and Head Studs
HPP3 160 Stat
Mac Girdle
Poly Motor, Tranny, and Tq Arm Mounts
Spec 3

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Old 09-05-2004, 05:08 PM   #2
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Differences: 98,99,00,01,02

This is some basic info on the LS1 that i've gather from all of the internet and put into one list:

1998

1. Had differnet casting heads which had perimeter bolts and valve covers.
2. Ignition coils were mounted to the valve covers one at a time.
3. The water temp gauge actually works.
4. 98's do have an oil life monitor, they just don't tell you anything when its time for a change. You can find it in Auto-Tap
5. WS6s had single outlet exhaust (all others had duals)
6. Steering wheel controls were completely different part with indentations on the buttons, and were better built
7. Only year that Purple, Gold, and Green were available
8. Some very early Trans Ams came with LT1 style headrests
9. Rear hatch release was poorly designed and often caused problems releasing mechanism
10. Early model 98 Monsoon stereos didnt have capability to control 12-disc CD changer
11. 1998-1999 automatic transmission LS1s could be started in 1st gear even with the shifter in 2nd. Starting 2000, if you put the shifter in 2, it would start off in 2, even from a stop.
12. 1998-1999 LS1 cars had a smaller throttle body cam, which caused the throttle to open to WOT faster than 2000+ cars
13. 1998 cars had 28 lb fuel injectors from the factory
14. 1998-2000 cars had a larger cam than the 01-02 cars
15. 1998-1999 cars had more restrictive exhaust manifolds
16. 1998-2000 cars had an LS1 intake with EGR
17. 1998 and some early 1999 cars had blue outside rear view mirrors (TA/Formula only)
18. 1998 only LS1 blocks had a much smaller cylinder sleeve that only tolerated a .005" hone
19. Last year F-body to use the old 15.5 gallon steel fuel tank.
20. Only year LS1 F-body to contain a gascap with a tether long enough to actually hang from the fuel door while open
21. Only year LS1 F-body to not contain the famous GM black box used in the event of an accident to record up to 5 seconds of pre-crash data
22. 1998 only cars had a different PCV system with the PCV valve located above the passenger side valve cover
23. 1998 most cars did not have an idle adjustment screw on the throttle body. Some 98 cars do have the idle throttle stop set screws.
24. 1998 cars have a completely different PCM from 99+ cars
25. A production shortage of F-body cams caused the use of a C5 cam to be installed in F-body LS1s for a very short time
26. 97-98 LS1's used a paper water pump gasket. The only gasket that isn't reuseable
27. SSs did not ALL go to SLP starting in 98. Y2Y was the RPO code that sent them to SLP for additional options
28. SS option did not "include" the Synthetic oil package, it was a SLP only Option

1999

1. 1999-2000 cars switched to 26 lb fuel injectors
2. Cylinder heads and valve covers redesigned to have center bolts instead of perimeter bolts. Other than that, the heads were the same.
3. Redesigned cylinder sleeves that allowed for a small bore, up from .005" in 1998 models.
4. Midyear model change to a cheaper steering wheel audio control button without finger indentations, and cheaper built
5. 1999 cars continued the LS1 intake with EGR provisions
6. 1999 cars continued more restrictive exhaust manifolds and larger cam
7. Only year that Hugger Orange was available (Camaro only)
8. 30th Anniversary Trans Am available with special blue and white paint package and blue clear coated WS6 wheels
9. Switch to larger 16.8 gallon plastic fuel tank to meet new emissions requirements.
10. Gascap tether was shorter and could no longer be used to hang on the gas door when open.
11. Company wide change added black boxes to record up to 5 seconds of data before a crash
12. Rear hatch release was redesigned with stiffer spring that released the hatch better
13. Water temp gauge was redesigned to work basically as a dummy gauge and only show an overheat condition.
14. An oil life monitor was added to all LS1s, thus changing the gauge cluster a little to show the oil life reset swtich
15. 1999-02 cars had a different PCV system with the valve located to the side of the intake manifold
16. Early production 1999 Trans Ams still had the blue outside mirrors, but a midyear change went to the non-tinted ones
17. 1999 there was the color "Medium Blue Metallic" which was available on both the Camaros and Firebirds. Only one year of that color

2000

1. Redesigned exhaust manifolds for new emissions standard actually flowed better and created a little more HP.
2. 2000 continued use of LS1 Intake, EGR, smaller cam, and 26 lb fuel injectors
3. Added rear child seat safety hooks to interior per federal requirements
4. Very early run of WS6s had "salad shooter" style rims. A production change switched back to standard 5-spoke WS6 rims.
5. Camaros got redesigned 10-spoke base rims, and SSs came with new 10-spoke rim design
6. First year of Monterey Maple Metallic paint
7. Charcoal (grayish) interior was replaced with Ebony (almost black) leather interior
8. Cloth interior cars got new rainbow colored cloth patterns
9. Camaros only got the Pontiac steering wheel with optional audio controls
10. Throttle body cam was increased in size to slow the speed at which the car reaches WOT
11. Automatic transmission cars were reprogrammed to allow a car to start off in 2nd gear from a stop when the shift lever is put into 2.
12. The last year a WS6 Formula was offered
13. Starting 2000 intake lids contained a seperate breather filter
14. 2000+ Camaros came with body colored mirrors instead of black ones like 98-99

2001

1. A small percentage of 2001 and 2002 LS1s actually had LS6 blocks which had a different part number and a darker metal cast
2. Starting 2001, all LS1s came with an LS6 intake manifold without an EGR system
3. Advertised HP output was changed from 305 to 310 on base LS1s and from 320 to 325 on WS6s and SSs
4. 2001-02 cars have a smaller cam from the Vortec truck engines to increase low end torque
5. 2001-02 cars had 28 lb fuel injectors like the 98 cars (albeit different part numbers)
6. WS6 cars had a redesigned 5 spoke rim which was more wavy
7. WS6 cars got less suspension upgrades from a base Trans Am suspension than previous years
8. Manual transmission cars all came with the Z06 clutch

2002 - Last year of the F-body

1. 35th Annivesary edition of the Camaro, and Collectors Edition Trans Am available
2. 2002 LS1 head gaskets redesigned. The new ones are a pressed metal, as opposed to the graphite ones and are no longer specific to the side of the car theyre installed on
3. 2002 cars continued with the LS6 intake, 28 lb fuel inectors and smaller truck cam
4. 2002 continued the use of an LS6 block in some LS1 F-bodies
5. A factory supported optional 345 HP option could be ordered from SLP
6. Manual transmission cars continued use of the Z06 clutch
7. Some 2002 model F-bodies came with a revised rear view mirror that had the map light buttons on the bottom, rather than the front.

compiled by constrictor98ta (mike) from ls2.com

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Old 09-05-2004, 05:09 PM   #3
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Specific 2001 - 2002 Changes

The following is an excerpt from WARD'S AUTO WORLD, January 1998:

OVERVIEW
The small block legend continues in model year 2001 with more horsepower and a host of refinements, including several engineered for the new LS6 V8. Yet the bottom line hasn't changed. The LS1 takes a back seat to no V8 engine, and remains one of the best bargains in the automotive world.


NEW OR CHANGED FOR 2001 MODEL YEAR


Camshaft from LQ4 6.0-liter V8 (Vortec 6000) Truck Engine

Eliminate Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)

Increased Volume Fuel Injectors

Increased Flow Air Cleaner with Larger Mass Air Flow sensor (MAF)

Pup Catalytic Converters

Cast Exhaust Manifolds with New Gasket

Reduced Tolerance Main Bearings

Revised Oil Level Tube and Indicator

Extended Maximum Oil Change Interval

Two-point Water Pump Vapor Vent

Sleeveless Coolant Sensor

Revised Powertrain Control Module Calibrations

Revised Rocker Cover Castings


CUSTOMER BENEFITS

LQ4 CAMSHAFT
Powertrain engineers found an elegant, cost-effective answer when the platform team asked for a five-horsepower increase in the 2001 LS1: They borrowed a billet-steel camshaft from the LQ4 Vortec 6000 truck engine. The new cam has more advance and different timing, delivering more torque lower in the rev range. Coupled with an improved air cleaner developed for the LS6 V8, the new cam increase horsepower by five in the Firebird.

EGR ELIMINATED
Application of the LQ4 cam produced a valuable side benefit: elimination of the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system. The new cam creates more valve overlap, or periods when both intake and exhaust valves are partially open at the same time. Increased overlap allows the LS1 to meet National Low Emissions Vehicle (NLEV) certification without EGR. Removal of EGR reduces engine plumbing and potential leak sources.

INCREASED VOLUME INJECTORS
New fuel injectors increase maximum fuel delivery to 3.55 grams/second. The injectors were developed specifically for the new Corvette LS6 V8, but have been applied to the LS1 as well. Shared injectors mean assembly efficiencies, and open the LS1 to further power increases in the future.

MAF SENSOR
The LS1 benefits from other improvements developed primarily for the LS6, including Delphi's high-volume version 1.2 Mass Air Flow sensor, with integral inlet air temperature sensor. This MAF sensor increases intake volume and allows the Powertrain Control Module to adjust for optimal performance at a given air temperature.
  • I have received MAF tables for '98-'99, '00 and '01-
    '02; the only differences are in how the upper end is
    populated (blank or flat-line values above 11500Hz).
    The "guts" of the tables are the same, and the part
    number is the same too from all accounts.

    Now the 'Vettes did change, like going from an
    F-body style to a screened 85mm to a descreened
    (Z06 anyway).

    - jimmyblue

PUP CATALYTIC CONVERTERS
Firebirds equipped with the LS1 borrow a page from the Corvette by adding a pair of pup converters for model year 2001. Mounted upstream from the primary catalytic converters, the pups heat more quickly and reach emissions light-off temperature before the primary converters. The pups help all 2001 LS1s meet Low Emissions Vehicle (LEV) requirements.

CAST EXHAUST MANIFOLDS
Pup converters also allow the LS1 to be fitted with cast iron exhaust manifolds developed for the LS6. These manifolds increase exhaust flow slightly and reduce cost considerably. They are also more durable than the dual-wall stainless manifolds on the 2000 LS1. Other things equal, cast manifolds take longer to reach full operating temperature than stainless, but with the pup catalysts light-off is still achieved in less than 20 seconds. A new gasket allows the manifolds to be used interchangeably between the LS1 and LS6.

BEARING TOLERANCE
Reduced tolerances in the crankshaft main bearings mean a more precise fit. The result is an increase in long-term durability and, just as importantly, a reduction in something known to engineers as "cold knock"--a slight slapping noise from the engine before it reaches full operating temperature.

EXTENDED OIL-CHANGE INTERVAL
New computer algorithms extend the oil-change interval. The Powertrain Control Module records engine temperature and length of operation at a given temperature; with new data on real-world customer use, engineers have adjusted the software to allow longer intervals before an oil change is indicated. The LS1 has a maximum permissible interval of 10,000 miles with recommended conventional lubricant.

TWO-POINT VAPOR VENT
The number of water pump vapor vents has been reduced from four to two, reducing cost. Experience with the LS1 has shown that two vents are sufficient to help maintain proper pressure and control coolant aeration.

SLEEVELESS COOLANT SENSOR
The coolant temperature sensor, supplied by Packard Electric, uses a plastic insulator to protect electrical leads in the brass housing, rather than a rubber sleeve. The new sensor reduces the possibility of assembly rejection or shorting in operation.

PCM RECALIBRATION
With the hardware adjustments, the Powertrain Control Module has been recalibrated to maximize performance and efficiency and ensure certification to National Low Emission Vehicle (NLEV) standards.

NEW ROCKER COVERS
Rocker covers have revised bosses, allowing the covers to be used interchangeably between car and truck small-block engines and enhancing assembly efficiency.

CONTINUING FEATURES
The LS1 achieved Low Emissions Vehicle (LEV) status in California for model year 2000, thanks to higher capacity catalysts on the Firebird and revisions that increased flow through the Air Injection Reaction (AIR) system in all applications. Cars equipped with LS1s were also fitted with On Road Vapor Recovery (ORVR) systems. The LS1 continues the grand tradition of one of the most important engines in automotive history--the original small block V8. While it shares its 4.4 inch bore centers with the first small block, the LS1 has introduced a host of advanced technologies to the overhead-cam V8, including all-aluminum construction, a thermoplastic intake manifold and drive-by-wire electronic throttle.

The LS1 retains its high-efficiency gerotor oil pump, which is driven off the front of the crankshaft. Benefits of the gerotor design include improved low temperature delivery and better performance, due to lower parasitic power loss.

"This engine obscures the line between overhead cams and overhead valves. There's no distinction anymore. The LS1 excels in reducing mass, package size and cost, with outstanding performance and NVH that's competitive with overhead-cam V8s. Doubters said we couldn't do everything--particularly meeting LEV—with overhead valves. We've proven them wrong." --John Juriga, Total Integration Engineer, LS1/LS6 V8

LEADERSHIP
The LS1 has wowed the business and enthusiast press, and found a spot on the WARD'S AUTO WORLD list of the 10 Best Engines in North America each year since its launch, because there is no arguing with results. This V8 exceeds customer expectations with outstanding overall performance at modest cost to both the customer and the corporation.

"Tire-trashing torque is what you want in a world-class sports/GT car, and the LS1 delivers--RIGHT NOW—when overhead cammers are still spooling up. That such torque and horsepower come with more refinement than one has a right to expect in nearly six liters of thumping V8 proves how effectively the old small block has been redesigned."

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Old 09-05-2004, 05:18 PM   #4
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Significant Gen III Engineering Points







• All Gen III truck engines use iron blocks. Only the Camaro (F-car) and Corvette (Y-car) LS1/LS6 engines feature aluminum blocks.

• All Gen III engines have aluminum heads except for the ’99 LQ4 engines that were equipped with iron heads. These engines received aluminum heads for the 2000 model year.

• All Gen III engines share common main, rod, and cam-bearing journal diameters for ease of interchange. All blocks use a cross-bolted six-bolt main cap.

• All Gen III engines are completely metric.

• All valvetrain pieces are completely interchangeable. The standard rocker ratio for all Gen III engines is 1.7:1.

• All Gen III truck engines use cast- aluminum oil pans that are deeper than either the Camaro or Corvette pans.

• All intake manifolds interchange. The truck intakes are roughly 3-4 inches taller than the passenger-car intakes.

• All Gen III engines employ reusable gaskets for all sealing surfaces except for the head gaskets. This makes it much quicker and easier to service the engine.

• There are only two intake valve sizes for all the Gen III engines. Exhaust valves are all the same diameter.

• Truck and Camaro engines use cable throttle linkage while the Corvette uses an electronic throttle. There are also some SUV engines with traction control that use an electronic throttle control.

• Bellhousing patterns are the same for all Gen III engines. The crank flange is basically the same depth as the bellhousing flange.

• The Gen III firing order has been revised from 1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2 to 1-8-7-2-6-5-4-3. Note that the pairings 1-8, 4-3, 6-5, and 7-2 remain the same, but the pairing order is different for reduced vibration.

• The valve angle on all Gen III engines is 15 degrees versus 23 degrees for the original and Gen II small-blocks.

• The Gen III bore spacing is the same as the original small-block, but each cylinder is ringed with only four head bolts instead of five.

taken from Chevy High Performance.

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Old 09-05-2004, 05:25 PM   #5
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98-02 Camaro Specifications:

98
99
00
01
02




98-02 Firebird/Trans Am Specifications:


98
99
00
01
02

Ram Air Packages


SS Performance Package - includes 325-hp 5.7L LS1 V8 with forced air induction system, unique hood air intake, low restriction exhaust system, synthetic engine oil, P275/40ZR17 Goodyear Eagle F1 performance tires (maximum speed rating), 17" x 9" 5-spoke aluminum wheels, specially-tuned performance suspension with larger front stabilizer bar, stiffer springs, unique shock valving and stiffer bushings, specific exterior and interior "SS" badging and unique rear deck-lid spoiler

Ram Air Performance and Handling Package - includes specific low restriction dual exhaust system, Ram Air induction system, functional hood scoops, 325 hp, 5.7L LS1 V8, P275/40ZR17 performance tires (maximum speed rating), 17" high-polished aluminum wheels, specific front and rear suspension with higher front and rear spring rates, unique shock valving, stiffer Panhard bushings and 3.23:1 rear axle ratio with automatic transmission; includes 3.42:1 rear axle with 6-speed manual transmission

The 1998-1999 and some 2000 WS6's got 1LE springs and other minor 1le parts, different decarbon shocks, ect. Nothing major, but it was more than the simple swaybar upgrades of the mid 2000-2002 cars got.

1998's also did not get the dual exhaust, instead they got a 3.5" stainless 1 out the left

**** Just because an ls1 is equiped with the optional "performance" packages does not make them faster ****

WHEN COMPARING CARS OF THE SAME YEAR AND TRANNY AN LS1 IS AN LS1 IS AN LS1 IS AN LS1 IS AN LS1 SO STOP WITH THE PETTY BULLSHIT..

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Old 09-05-2004, 05:43 PM   #6
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Stock Cam Specs

stock 98-00

duration@.050 198.86 intake 209.25 exhaust
lift .498 intake .497 exhaust
LSA 119.45

stock 01-02

duration@.050 196.37 intake 208.72 exhaust
lift .464 intake .479 exhaust
LSA 115.92

this is my 98 cam




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Old 09-05-2004, 05:48 PM   #7
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Gears and Rear End

98 Auburn, 99-02 Torsen
M6 GU6 3.42 Standard
A4 GU2 2.73 Standard
A4 GU5 3.23 Optional (standard gear set with an SS/WS6/Firehawk)
A4 G92 3.15 (Vette optional)
28 Spline Axle 10 bolt rear end

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Old 09-05-2004, 06:39 PM   #8
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How to tell if you have an LS6 Block



15% of 01s and 25% of 02's got the LS6 Block. The only way to tell 100% is to check the casting number. As you can see in the above pic (my ls6 block ) the casting number is at the top of the deck on the drivers side. Take a mirror and place it behind the block and check or jack up the car and attempt to look from the bottom. The "easier" ways are the casting hue and bulleye methods but none are conclusive. If you really want to know if you have the block you'll need to do the work and look for yourself, end of story.

Once you have determined if you have an LS6 block (ya you), then the only benefit to the block are the bay windows.



Its generally accepted from most engine builders that if your going for an extreme setup that the LS1 block offers more structural strength over the LS6 block.

THE LS6 BLOCK DOES NOT INCREASE HP, REPEAT AFTER ME "IF I HAVE AN LS6 BLOCK IT DOES NOT INCREASE POWER". LEARN IT, SAY IT, REPEAT IT.

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Old 09-05-2004, 09:22 PM   #9
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OEM Cam Specs


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Old 09-05-2004, 09:31 PM   #10
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OEM HP Ratings




THE FBODY IS UNDERATED, YES, YOU READ RIGHT. THOSE ADVERTISED NUMBERS THAT GM QUOTES ARE BULLSHIT. WHY GM UNDERTATED THE LS1 IN THE FBODY WE'LL NEVER KNOW FOR SURE BUT THE FACT IS THEY DID. AN LS1 IN THE FBODY WILL DYNO ANYWHERE FROM 270RWHP TO 320RWHP DEPENDING ON YEAR, TRANNY, AND OPTIONS (SS/'HAWK OR SLP OPTIONS).

I REPEAT AGAIN THE 98-02 CARS ARE UNDERATED!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


if i see a thread asking if the ls1's are underated im going to lock it and refer you here.


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Old 09-05-2004, 10:08 PM   #11
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General Motor Information


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Old 09-05-2004, 10:29 PM   #12
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Vin Decoding



below is an example of a vin from a 2001 car: 2G1FP22G912108833

1st Country 2 Canada
2nd Manufacturer G General Motors
3rd Make 1 Chevrolet
4th Carline Code F F-Body
5th Series P Camaro (All Models)
6th Body Type 2 2-Door Hatchback Coupe
7th Restraint Syst. 2 Manual seatbelts (Driver & Passenger Inflatable)
8th Engine G LS1 5.7-Liter V8 346-cid Engine
9th Check Digit 9 Your VIN's Check Digit: 9 Computed Check Digit: 9
10th Year 1 2001
11th Factory 2 Ste. Therese, Quebec, Canada
12th - 17th Seq. Prod # 108833 108833


Click Here to decode your Vin.

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Old 09-05-2004, 10:51 PM   #13
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Automotive Calculators

Click HERE
  • Gear/RPM
  • Fuel Injector Flow Rate
  • Tire Size
  • Head Air Flow
  • Much Much More

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Old 09-05-2004, 11:06 PM   #14
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Trannies
  • Torque Convertors: How they Work

    - What size is right for you? depends on the application DO YOUR OWN RESEARCH, start in the Automatic Transmission Forum we have here, its there for a reason . General rule is 3200-3600 for daily drive, 4k+ for alot of track use.
  • Manual Transmissions: How they Work

    - When looking to upgrade think of current and future mods. 01-02 cars come with the ls6 clutch and hydraulics which is a good setup for basic bolt on and daily driving.

    - You'll find the Spec 3 to be one of the most popular clutch setups here. Ram also makes a nice setup. Again, Do your OWN research n he Manua Transmission forum concerning chatter, clutch break in, hydraulics, ect. 98-00 cars will want to upgrade to the 01+ hydraulics when installing a new clutch.

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Old 09-05-2004, 11:10 PM   #15
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A4 or M6

BOTTOM LINE: ITS YOUR CAR, YOUR MONEY, DRIVE BOTH AND COME TO YOUR OWN CONCLUSION BASED ON YOUR GOALS AND YOUR APPLICATION. BOTH CAN BE MADE TO GO FAST. PERIOD.

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Old 09-05-2004, 11:17 PM   #16
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Production Numbers by Year (Camaro)

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Old 09-05-2004, 11:35 PM   #17
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RPO Code List

RPO Production Codes (LS1)

AG1 - Power Adjuster, Driver Front Seat, Multi-Directional

AK5 - Inflatable Restraint System, Driver and Passenger Seat

AQ9 - Front Bucket Seat, Driver and Passenger Recline

AR9 - Front Bucket Seat, Driver and Passenger Recline, European Style

AU0 - Remote Entry Lock Control

AU3 - Side Door Electric Lock Control

AX4 - Restraint Conversion Seat, Manual European

A26 - Window Glazing, European

A31 - Window, Power Operated, All Doors

A90 - Lock Control, Right Component Lid, Remote Control Electronic Release

BAG - Parts Package Export

BBS - **** Shifter Hurst

B35 - Covering Rear Floor Mats

B9W - Wiring Provisions, DRL Override

CC1 - Roof Hatch Removable Panels, Glass

C49 - Rear Window Defogger, Electric

C60 - HVAC System AC Manual Controls, Front

DD9 - Mirror, Breakaway, O/S LH & RH Remote Control Electric Color

DE4 - Sunshade, Removable Hatch Roof

DG7 - Mirror, O/S LH & RH Remote Control Electric Color

DL5 - Decal, Roadside Service Information

DS1 - Sales, Diplomatic

D21 - Sunshade, Windshield

D35 - Mirror, O/S LH Remote Control, RH Manual Control, Color

ETA - Harness, I/P Wiring #1

FE2 - Suspension System, Ride and Handling

FE4 - Suspension System, Special Ride and Handling

FE9 - Certification, Federal Emission

FLT - Fleet Processing Option

F41 - Suspension System, Front and Rear Firm Ride and Handling

GU2 - Axle Ratio 2.73, Rear

GU4 - Axle Ratio 3.08, Rear

GU5 - Axle Ratio 3.23, Rear

GU6 - Axle Ratio 3.42, Rear

G80 - Axle Positraction, Limited Slip

JAF - Brake Provisions, European

J65 - Brake System, Power, Front and Rear Disc

K05 - Heater, Engine Block

K29 - Module Powertrain Control

K34 - Cruise Control, Automatic, Electronic

K43 - Generator, 102 Amp

K68 - Generator, 105 Amp

LS1 - Engine, Gas V8 5.7L SFI Aluminum

L36 - Engine, Gas V6 3.8L MFI HO

MAE - Marketing Area Europe

MM5 - Merchandised Transmission, Manual 5 Speed

MM6 - Transmission, Manual 6 Speed O/D

MN6 - Merchandised Transmission, Manual 6 Speed

MX0 - Merchandised Transmission, Automatic O/D

M30 - Transmission, Auto 4 Speed Electronic

M49 - Transmission, Manual 5 Speed O/D

NA3 - Emission System, Japan

NC1 - Emission System, California

NF7 - Emission System, Federal

NK3 - Steering Wheel, Sport, Soft Rim, Simulated Leather

NM2 - Emission System Export, Leaded Fuel

NP5 - Steering Wheel, Leather Wrapped

NP7 - Steering Column, EEC Approved

NT3 - Emission System, EEC 00

NW9 - Traction Control, Electronic

N36 - Steering Wheel, 4 Spoke Sport

N60 - Wheel, Aluminum, Painted

N66 - Wheel, Styled Aluminum

N73 - Wheel, Custom Sport Var4 17"

N92 - Cover, Wheel, Bolt-on

N96 - Wheel, 16 X 8 Cast Aluminum

N98 - Wheel, 16 X 8 Cast Aluminum Chrome

PA6 - Wheel, Styled Painted

PW7 - Wheel, 16 X 8 Aluminum Styled

P05 - Wheel, Chrome

QB3 - Wheel, 16 X 7.5 Steel

QCB - Tire, All P235/55R16-96T BW AL2

QEA - Tire, All P215/60R16-94T BW AL2

QFK - Tire, All P275/40R17-93W BW HW4

QFZ - Tire, All P245/50R16 BWAL3

QF6 - Wheel 17 X 9, Aluminum

QII - Tire, All P215/60R16-94H BW AL3

QLC - Tire, All P245/50R16/N BL HW4

TR7 - Headlamps, Control Leveling System, Automatic

T2H - Ornamentation Exterior, Export Unique Requirements

T2J - Ornamentation Interior, Export Unique Requirements

T37 - Lamp, Fog, Deluxe

T39 - Lamp, Turn Signal, Auxiliary

T43 - Spoiler, Rear

T65 - Lamp System, Daytime Running, Export

T72 - Headlamps, LH, Rule of the Road

T78 - Headlamp Control, Delete

T79 - Lamp, Fog Rear

T82 - Headlamp Control, Automatic ON-OFF

T84 - Headlamps, RH Rule of the Road

T85 - Headlamps, LH Rule of the Road

T89 - Lamp, Tail & Stop, Export

T90 - Lamp, Signaling and Marker, Export

T96 - Lamp, Fog

UA6 - Theft Deterrent System

UB3 - Cluster, Instrument, Oil Cool Temp Volts Trip Odom Tach

UC2 - Speedometer, Instrument, Kilo & Miles, Positive Bias

UD4 - Alarm, Vehicle Speed, 120 K/H

UK1 - Frequencies, Japanese

UK2 - Lever, Directional Signal, Includes Multi-Functions

UK3 - Control, Steering Wheel, Accessory

UL0 - Radio, AM/FM Stereo Seek/Scan Auto Rev Music Search Cass Auto-Tone Clock ETR

UL2 - Frequencies, European

UL8 - Frequencies, Saudi Arabian

UM6 - Radio, AM/FM Stereo Seek/Scan Auto Rev Cass Clock ETR

UN0 - Radio, AM/FM Stereo Seek/Scan Compact Disc Auto Tone Clock ETR

UQ0 - Speaker System, 4 Dual Front Door Mounted, Dual STD RGE, Qtr/Shelf

UW3 - Radio, AM/FM Stereo Seek/Scan, Auto Rev Music Search Cass Data System Clock ETR

UZ7 - Speaker System 8, Quad Front Door Mounted, Dual Sail Panel, Dual Rear Hatch Amplifier

U12 - Speedometer, Dual Scale with Kilometer Odometer

U19 - Speedometer, Instrument, Kilo & Miles, Kilo Odometer

U59 - Speaker System 8, Dual Front Door Mounted, Quad Sail Panel, Amplifier

U73 - Antenna, Fixed Radio

U75 - Antenna, Power Radio

VA5 - Language Label, English

VD1 - Provision Options, Europe

VE1 - Provision Options, Japan

VE2 - Protector Source Applied

VG1 - Protector, Underhood Compound, Clear

VG4 - Protector, Undervehicle Compound, Black

VG9 - Protector Wax, Exterior Body

VH5 - Plate Vehicle Identification

VI6 - Fleet Incentive, American Standard

VJ1 - License Plate Rear Mounting Package, Japanese

VK3 - License Plate, Front Mounting Package

VL4 - License Plate, Front Mounting Package, EEC

VL5 - License Plate, Rear Mounting Package, Export

VL6 - License Plate, Front Mounting Package, Japanese

VP6 - Noise Control

VR6 - Hook, Tie-Down, Shipping

VR7 - Hook, Tow, Second, Rear

V12 - Cooling System, Power Steering Fluid

V76 - Hook, Tow

WS6 - Performance Package Special

WX7 - Wiring Provisions

W53 - Entertainment System Option C

W54 - Entertainment System Option D

W55 - Entertainment System Option E

W66 - Merchandised Package, Formula

W68 - Sales Package, Firebird Ground Effects

X10 - Entertainment System, Option L

X20 - Entertainment System, Option M

Y3F - Sales Package, Sport, Appearance Upfitter

Y4A - Exhaust Cat Back

Y4B - Provisions Level II Ultra Performance Suspension

Y4C - Lubricant Engine Oil & Performance

Y4D - Axle Torque Sensing Differential

Y4E - Cooling System Engine Oil

Y4F - Provisions Hurst Shifter

Y4G - Provisions Chrome Wheels

Y4H - Ornamentation Dash Plaque & Key Fobs

Y4J - Covering Floor Front Mats

Y4K - Protector Car Cover

Y4L - Provisions Spoiler

Y81 - Merchandised Package, Firebird

Y82 - Merchandised Package, Firebird, Trans Am

Y84 - Merchandised Package, Firebird Trans Am, GTA

Y87 - Merchandised Package, Performance Enhancement

1R3 - Vehicle Identification Label 1

1R4 - Vehicle Identification Label 2

Last edited by jrp; 05-29-2005 at 07:14 PM.
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Old 09-05-2004, 11:37 PM   #18
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LT1


Code Description
AG1 Adjuster, 6-Way Power, Driver Seat
AG4 Adjuster, 2-Way Manual, Driver Seat
AH3 Adjuster, 4-Way Manual, Driver Seat
AK5 Restraint System Front Seat, Inflatable, Driver and Passenger
AN4 Restraint Provisions, Child
AQ9 Seat, Passenger and Driver, Recline
AUO Lock Control, Remote Entry
AU3 Lock, Side Door, Electric
A31 Window, Power Operated, Side
A90 Lock, Rear Compartment Lid, Remote Control, Electric
B35 Floor Mats, Rear, Carpeted Insert
B84 Exterior Molding, Body Side
CC1 Roof Hatch, Removable Glass Panels
C41 HVAC System, Heater
C49 Defogger, Rear Window Electric
C60 HVAC System, Air Conditioner, Manual Control
DD9 Mirror, Outside, LH & RH, Remote Control, Electric, Breakaway, Painted
DE4 Sunshade, Removable Hatch Roof
DG7 Mirror, Outside LH & RH, Remote Control, Electric, Painted
DL5 Decal Roadside Service Information
D35 Mirror, Outside LH Remote, RH Manual, Painted
D82 Paint Special
FE2 Suspension system, Ride handling
FE9 Certification Emission, Federal
F41 Suspension System, Firm Ride Handling, Front and Rear
GU2 Axle, Rear 2.73 Ratio
GU4 Axle, Rear 3.08 Ratio
GU5 Axle, Rear 3.23 Ratio
GU6 Axle, Rear 3.42 Ratio
G80 Axle, Rear Posi-traction (Limited Slip)
ILD Trim, Interior Design
IL2 Trim, Interior Design
IPB Trim, Interior Design
IP2 Seat, Leather Sport Front Bucket, Driver & Passenger, Reclining
J41 Brake System, Power, Front Disc, Rear Drum, Cast Iron
J65 Brake System, Power, Front and Rear Disc
KG9 Generator, 140 Amp
K05 Heater, Engine Block
K34 Cruise Control, Automatic Electronic
K68 Generator, 1 05 Amp
LT1 Engine, 5.7L (V8) MFI
L36 Engine, 3.8L (V6) MFI
MM5 Transmission, 5-Speed Manual (Merchandising Option)
MM6 Transmission, Manual, 6-Speed, Borg Warner, 65mm, 2.66 1st, 0.50 6th, O/D
MN6 Transmission - 6-Speed Manual (merchandising Option)
MXO Transmission - Automatic O/D (Merchandising Option)
M30 Transmission - Automatic, 4-Speed, 4LE, Electronic
M49 Transmission, Manual, 5-Speed, Borg Warner, 77mm, 3.75 1st, 0.76 5th, O/D
NB6 Emission System, California Requirements, Tier 1
NC3 Tailpipe Modifications
NF2 Emission System- Federal Requirement, Tier 1
NK3 Steering Wheel, Sport, Soft Rim, Simulated Leather
NP5 Steering Wheel, Leather Wrapped
NW9 ASR Traction Control
N36 Steering Wheel, 4-Spokes, Sport
N60 Wheel, Aluminum, Painted
N92 Cover, Wheel, Bolt-On
N96 Wheel, 16x8, Cast Aluminum
N98 Wheel, Chrome, Var 2
P05 Wheel, Chrome, Var 1
P08 Cover, Wheel, Super Deluxe
QA7 Wheel, 16x7.5, Aluminum
QB3 Wheel, 16x7.5, Steel
QEA Tire, P215/6OR16 BW R/Pe ST TL AL2 94T
QFZ Tire, P24515OZR16 BW R/PE ST TL AL3
QII Tire, P21516OR16 BW R/PE ST TL AL3 94H
QLC Tire, P24515OZR161N BL R/PE ST TL HW4
STE Plant Code-St. Therese, PQ, GM of Canada
TR7 Headlamps, Automatic Control Leveling System
T39 Lamp Turn Signal, Auxiliary
T43 Spoiler, Rear
T61 Lighting- Daytime Running
T96 Lamp, Fog
UA6 Theft Deterrent System
UB3 Instrument Cluster, Oil, Coolant, Temperature, Volts, Trip Odometer, Tachometer
UK2 Lever, Directional Signal, Multifunction
UK3 Electronic System Accessory Control
UL0 AM/FM Cassette ETR 200 Watt Monsoon Sound System w/cassette
UN0 AM/FM Cassette ETR 200 Watt Monsoon Sound System w/CD player
UN6 Radio, AM/FM stereo, Seek/Scan, Auto Reverse Music Search Cassette, Clock, ETR
UQ0 Speaker System 4, Dual Front Door Mounted, Standard Range Quarter/Shelf
UU8 Radio, AM/FM Stereo, Seek/Scan, Auto Reverse Music Search Cassette, HPS, Clock, ETR
U1C Radio, AM/FM Stereo, Seek/scan, Compact Disc, Clock, ETR
U1S 12 Disc Compact Disc Changer
U1T Radio, AM/FM Stereo, Seek/Scan, Compact Disc, HPS, Clock, ETR
U18 Speedometer Instrument Kilometers
U19 Speedometer Instrument, Kilometers and Miles, Kilometer Odometer
U62 Speaker system 4, Dual Coax Front, Dual Coaxial Package shelf
U65 Speaker system 5, Dual Front Door Mtd, Dual Ext. Range Panel, Single Rear Compartment
U73 Antenna, Fixed
U75 Antenna, Power
VG8 Label, Vehicle, Notice to Buyer
VH5 Plate, Vehicle Information
VK3 License Plate, Front Mount Package
VP6 Noise Control
WS6 Performance Package - Formula/Trans Am
WU8 SS Performance Package/Appearance Package - Camaro
W51 Entertainment system - Radio, AM/FM-stereo, seek/scan, cassette, 4 Speaker system · Standard Range
W52 Entertainment System - Radio, AM/FM stereo, Cassette, Equalizer, 4 Speaker system - Coaxial
W53 Entertainment System - Radio, AM/FM Stereo, Compact Disc, Equalizer 4 Speaker System - Coaxial
W54 Entertainment System - Radio, AM/FM Stereo, Cassette, Equalizer, 10 Speaker System, Amplifier
W55 Entertainment System - Radio, AM/FM Stereo, Compact Disc, Equalizer 10 Speaker System, Amplifier
W57 Entertainment system - Radio, AM/FM stereo, Cassette, Equalizer, 4 Speaker system - Coaxial
W58 Entertainment system - Radio, AM/FM Stereo, Compact Disc, Equalizer, 4 Speaker system - Coaxial
W59 Entertainment system - Radio, AM/FM Stereo, Cassette, Equalizer, 6 Speaker System, Dual Front Door Tweeters/Woofers, Extended Range Shelf
W66 Merchandised Package - Formula
W73 Entertainment system - Radio, AM/FM Stereo, Compact Disc, Equalizer, 6 Speaker system, Dual Front Door Tweeters/Woofers, Extended Range Shelf
Y81 Merchandised Package - Firebird
Y82 Merchandised Package - Trans Am, Base Coupe
Y84 Merchandised Package - Trans Am
Y87 Merchandised Package - Performance Enhancement
Z28 Merchandised Package - Special Performance
Z49 Canadian Modifications
01U Primary Color exterior, Special
05Q Molding Color, Cyclamen
O5U Primary Color Exterior, Cyclamen
1LE Performance Package Components
101 Interior Trim - Arctic White
1OT Top Color - Arctic White
102 Trim Combination Leather, Arctic White
1OQ Molding Color - Arctic White
1OU Primary Color - Exterior, Arctic White
12B Trim Combination - Cloth, Graphite
12D Trim Combination - Cloth, Graphite
121 Interior Trim - Graphite
14B Trim Combination - Cloth, Dark Gray
1SG Preferred Equipment Group
28U Primary Color - Exterior, Navy Blue Metallic
1FP87- Camaro Coupe Z28

Last edited by jrp; 05-29-2005 at 07:15 PM.
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Old 09-05-2004, 11:51 PM   #19
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How to Tell an SS/WS6/Firehawk is Real
  • SS = WU8 RPO Code
  • WS6 = WS6 (crafty huh) RPO Code
  • Firehawk = WU6 RPO Code

RPO code list can be found on the inside of the DRIVERS side door where it latches. IF you dont have an above code you dont have a real SS/WS6/Firehawk. SS/Firehawks with SLP options will have the options list code on the Passenger inside door pannel. If you dont have that list it means you just have a regular SS/Firehawk w/o SLP options.

SLP made the SS until " " when GM started building them inhouse. ASC did all the WS6 conversions and SLP did all the Firehawks.
  • Differences from WS6 and 'Hawk

    Looks and OPTIONS yes, gears no. All LS1 Firebirds wheather they were WS6's or regular T/A or Formulas that were ordered as Autos (A4's) came w/3:23's. All that were ordered as 6-speeds (m6's) came w/3:42's. WS6's, Firehawks, and regular birds wheather T/A or Formula share identical drivetrains an LS1 350 coupled to a M6 or A4 tranny. As far as looks goes? That's in the eye of the beholder. The Firehawks have a little more than looks over the WS6's which is mainly options and rarity. Firehawks came stock w/3" intermediate exhaust w/dual-dual tips. WS6's on the other hand came w/2.5" intermediate exhaust w/single-single exhaust with the exception of the '98 WS6 which had single left side exhaust. Firehawks also came with a slightly different designed 5-spoke wheel which you could order in 2 different finishes: Stock flat aluminum gray, or Option triple-chrome plated (real chrome) not a high polished aluminum like WS6's. Now to the hoods. Firhawk hoods are functional Ram-Airs as well as the heat-extractors (located on top corners of the hood) just a different design. Hawk hoods are more of a composite 1-piece that is designed specifically to fit with the front facia of the Hawk. WS6 hoods are a composite 2-piece hood which is just a regular Firebird hood with 2 air inlets molded to the top, thus giving that 4 nostril look. This hood can be bolted to any regular Formula or T/A bird without any fitting problems. Unlike the Hawk hoods which must be fitted with the slightly different designed front facia of the Hawk. Now, everything I just mentioned to you was standard equipment for Hawks. What really separated the two were the extra SLP options that were available for Hawks which were:

    -Firehawk embroidered floor mats
    -Bilstein Suspension '99-'02 or 1LE '01-'02
    -Specific triple-chrome plated Firehawk wheels
    -Lower rear-deck SLP spoiler which were standard on Anniv. Hawks

    (HAWKMAN_)

For more SS/WS6/Hawk info check the "Special Editions" forum.

im tired of seeing threads asking if my SS/WS6/T/A/Z28 is real. here are a set of instructions on finding out exactly what it is and obtaining legit proof.

1. Take VIN to GM dealership
2. Go to Parts and Service
3. Give them your VIN and ask them for a build sheet and window sticker on your car.
4. if you dont want to pay, ask them to confirm if it is real or not.

SLP/ASC specific cars.
Call SLP or ASC with your VIN and have them verify if it is a true SS/WS6
SLP did the SS and Firehawks
ASC did the T/A's


Phone numbers and addresses:

ASC:
1 ASC Center
Southgate, MI
48195
Phone: 734-285-4911

SLP:
1501 Industrial Way North
Tom River, NJ
08755
Phone: 734-349-2109
Fax: 732-244-0867

-bww3588

Last edited by jrp; 11-01-2006 at 04:47 PM.
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Old 09-06-2004, 01:47 AM   #20
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The Millennium Motor: Inside the LS1

by Hib Halverson
Electronic Version, copyright 1996, 1997 by Shark Communications

Adapted from material published on the Vettenet and ZR1 net mail lists in August 1996 and from a printed version in the August, 1996 issue of Corvette Fever magazine

Before the 1997 Corvette was even in dealers, it had been reported for a year or more that the all-new platform, known to insiders as "C5," would be the first General Motors Corporation product to use a new family of medium-displacement V8 engines. Though the car did not debut on the show circuit until January 6, 1997 and in dealers on March 6. 1997, way back on June 11, 1996 in Los Angeles, GM confirmed the engine rumor with a preliminary to the C5 launch: a press show spotlighting its engine.

My first reaction back then was that what’s known as "RPO LS1, 5.7L SFI V8," is an outstanding design, engineering and manufacturing exercise destined to be yet another landmark in the history of America’s Sports Car. My second reaction? A snicker at the show biz that clouded the engine’s debut.

It is not unusual to introduce a new Corvette engine before its car. In 1988, media got a comprehensive technical seminar on the LT5 nine months before it was shown the ZR1. Of course, this is now; and that was then.

A major deficiency of this June 11 show and Chevrolet’s other LS1 publicity efforts around the country in the summer of 1996 was that 1) they failed to adequately address the most striking feature of LS1: its pushrod valve gear and 2) they came wrapped in a spoof of medical TV shows. The Corvette community contains many potential C5 customers who were not served well by this program because its information value was degraded by its need to entertain.

The quality and timeliness of the in-depth, LS1, technical information reaching the Chevrolet enthusiast was further blunted by only average coverage to date from Corvette media and Chevrolet’s decision to let Hot Rod magazine break the LS1 story ahead of all other publications. The stories that finally made it into print in the Corvette media were either too brief, poorly researched or lacked depth because their editors felt preempted by Chevrolet’s leaking the story.

These shortcomings of these processes are why you have The Idaho Unofficial Corvette and Corvette Surfing WWW sites. Like a beacon of reality, we’re going to cut through the smoke to the hard-core, gearhead story behind this stunning, new engine.

The LS1 press kit said, "Based on a timeless design by former Chevrolet Chief Engineer Ed Cole, the ‘Gen III’ 5.7-liter V8 marks a bright new chapter in the highly respected lineage that GM small blocks have established in more than 40 years."

I think Chevrolet understated its case.

LS1 is brilliant.

Rather than just a chapter in engine history; it’s more like a whole new book!

What it is not is: "based on" Ed Cole’s legendary Small-Block. LS1’s greatness comes from being a clean-sheet-of-paper design. The only major feature it has in common with the Small-Block is a bore center-to-center measurement of 4.40 inches and we believe that exists for marketing reasons rather than an engineering case.

When and Why

By 1991, writing was already on the wall. While tens of millions of Small-Blocks had been produced in 36 years, the basic architecture would be a liability if customer demands for world-class performance, increasingly stringent exhaust emissions regulation and higher fuel economy standards were going to be met. While Chevrolet and the General Motors Powertrain Division (GMPD) knew the Gen II (LT1/4 and L99, introduced for 1992) and Gen I-E (light-truck, Vortec series engines, introduced for 1996) upgrades would stretch the Small-Block’s life; it was clear that further improvement was needed, if those demands were going to be addressed in the late-'90s and early-'00s.

That winter, deep inside GMPD, study began of a third iteration of the Small-Block V8. Expectedly, someone coined the name "Gen III" and it stuck. The project had SAE net power and torque goals of 1 horsepower and 1 pound/foot of torque per cubic inch displacement. There was a weight reduction goal of about 60 lb. When asked about durability, reliability, drivability and pleasability objectives; GMPD said only that intent in those areas was "best in class." While that phrase was maybe a bit ambiguous, because Corvette has few direct competitors and none with big V8s, my road test of a C5 pilot car (VIN 00063) in March of 1997 showed the new engine exceeds expectations for drivability and meets them for pleasability. I suspect that time will show the engine's reliability/durability equaling and possibly exceeding that of the Gen II Small-Block.

The first major challenge may have been more philosophical than technical. John Juriga, LS1 Project Manager, talked about the initial design period, "Trying to decide what was the right engine technology for the application was probably the biggest hurdle we faced."

This was really not one decision, but a series of them that carried throughout the early phases of the program.

In February of 1993, a stunning decision, arising from this GMPD "soul searching," was to discontinue Gen III as a Small-Block and do it as a totally new, medium-displacement, V8. The change was made after it became obvious that a Small-Block could not meet the program’s goals; however, don’t think that Gen III work to-date had been for nothing. Significant technology developed for the still-born, Small-Block Gen III went into the 1996 LT4. Roller rocker arms, more aggressive camshaft, hollow-stemmed valves, intake and exhaust port enhancements, rolled-fillet crankshaft and "powdered-metal" rods, all early Gen III ideas, were pulled ahead for the last Small-Block in a Corvette.

Initially, it was thought that the first of the all-new Gen IIIs might show up in a low-volume, 1996 truck application, but as engineers better understood the time necessary to take it from paper to production and make it best-in-class; it was decided that the engine would debut for 1997 in Corvette trim. A similar, but slightly less powerful LS1 goes into the Camaro in 1998 and the all-new, '99 or ’00 C/K trucks will get the iron block/aluminum head version. Perhaps other places a Gen III might appear are a "Monte Carlo SS" (front-drive, smaller displacement, aluminum), maybe a high-performance compact truck (iron block/alum. head) and in trucks over of 8600 lbs. GVW and higher (iron block/iron head).

We suspect that the first, very early prototypes of the all-new, Gen III ran on the dynos at GM Powertrain sometime in the early spring of 1993. In-vehicle testing began at the GM Milford Proving Ground in the first week in May of 1993 with the "Chevrolet Engineering and Research Vehicle IV-A" (CERV4a) powered by a prototype, of 5.0 liters and having an iron block and aluminum heads. Eight months later a second car, the CERV4b fitted with a 5.7L iron block/aluminum head Gen III, was added to the test program.

The Gen III passed the "Concept Direction" "gate" in the development process in September of ’93. To do this, it had to have demonstrated the capability to meet the requirements set for the project. Then came Concept Approval. That happened in May of 1994 when the LS1 was within 10% of all development targets.

The C5 "alpha" build, which produced the first prototype cars that were reasonably close to how the 1997 Corvette would look, began in June of 1994. By late-summer, the alpha phase was in high-gear and most all used iron block/aluminum head Gen IIIs at first, with a few all-aluminum units showing up late that year.

The next C5 iteration, the "beta," began to appear at the end of June 1995. Betas were very representative of what production C5s would be and were the last cars built in Michigan at GM prototype assembly line. Betas used mostly, aluminum LS1s. By fall-'95, the beta build was complete, but the number of cars in testing, believed to have been about two dozen, sometimes exceeded the supply of reliable, all-aluminum engines. Betas not used in development where vehicle mass approximating production intent was necessary, sometimes got iron block/aluminum head engines.

By late 1995 or early 1996, the aluminum block shortage was less of a problem and the LS1 progressed to the point that final development in prototype C5s was underway. That continued into the April of 1996 when the engine was released for production.

An interesting aspect of the engine program was the "Cormaro". In the first six months of 1995, twenty C5 structure/chassis/powertrain combinations were fitted with modified ’95 Camaro bodyshells. These cars were used well into 1996 for powertrain development and were a perfect way to put street miles on the LS1 without drawing attention...at least until ace spyshooter, Jim Dunne, published a picture of a Cormaro in AutoWeek magazine and identified the car as a Gen III V8 "test mule."

There was also an unknown number of C4s that were fitted with Gen III engines. These cars were used to develop cold-start ability and the traction control system software.

Last edited by jrp; 05-29-2005 at 07:15 PM.
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