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Welding filler metal guide - stainless steels

Old 10-26-2005, 03:51 PM
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Default Welding filler metal guide - stainless steels

ER308: Suitable for welding austenitic stainless of the 18/8 type. Excellent intermediate layer for deposition of hard-surfacing material.
ER308H: Basically the same qualities as 308, but with a higher carbon content. Often used in many chemical applications.
ER308L: Used in similar 308 applications, but with improved resistance to intergranular corrosion due to lower carbon content. Welds AISI types 304, 308, 321, and 347.
ER308L Hi Sil: High silicon version of 308L. Silicon improves arc stability and leaves an exceptionally smooth bead appearance. Weld requires little or no finishing work. May be used with CO2 gas in some GMAW applications.
ER308SI: Suitable for joining 304 and 347 type stainless steels for service temperature up to 660F . Same as ER308 except for the higher silicon content, which improves the usability in GMAW.
ER309: Higher content of Chrome and Nickel, suitable for welding heat-resistant base metal of similar composition. Commonly used to join carbon steel to austenitic steel. Intended working temperatures up to 570F.
ER309L: Same qualities as 309 but with lower carbon content necessary in many chemical applications.
ER309LMO: Same as ER309MO except for a lower carbon content (max 0.03%). ER309LMO is used in the same type of applications as the ER309MO. In several layer welds, the low carbon ER309LMO is usually needed for the first layer in order to achieve low carbon contents in successive layers with filler metal such as ER316L or ER317L.
ER309L: Hi Sil is a high silicon version of 309L. Higher silicon gives arc stability and exceptionally smooth bead appearance.
ER310: Used to weld austenitic heat-resistant steels, also certain stainless chrome steels. The weld is practically free of ferrite which can produce hot cracks; however, measures to reduce shrinkage stresses are recommended in critical cases.
ER310H: Same as ER310 with slightly more carbon. Primarily used to weld or repair high alloy heat and corrosion resistant castings of the same general composition, designated as type HK by the Alloy Castings Institute. High strength at temperatures over 1700F.
ER312: Useful for welding dissimilar metals, of which one component is high in nickel. Gives a two-phase weld deposit with substantial percentages of ferrite in an austenite matrix. Even with considerable dilution by austenite-forming elements such as nickel, the microstructure remains two-phase and thus highly resistant to weld metal cracks and fissures.
ER316: Recommended for welding AISI 316 stainless steel applications where high creep strength at elevated temperatures and resistance to pitting by corrosive liquids is needed.
ER316H: Same qualities as 316 but with a higher carbon content deemed necessary in many chemical applications.
ER316L: Suitable for welding acid-resistant steels such as 316 and 316L. Welds produced have good resistance to corrosion in most inorganic and organic acids, and to pitting in chloride-bearing solutions.
ER316LSI: Same characteristics as 316L. The low carbon in the weld metal gives excellent assurance against intergranular corrosion. Hi Sil allows better arc stability along with minimal post-weld grinding.
ER317: Recommended for welding austenitic acid-resistant steels. High molybdenum content provides a weld with improved resistance to general corrosion in most inorganic and organic acids and to pitting in chloride bearing solutions. Low carbon protects against intergranular corrosion.
ER317L: Same as ER317, but with lower carbon content necessary in many chemical applications.
ER320: Used in welding base metals of similar composition (20Cb-3) for applications where corrosion resistance to sulfuric, sulfurous acids and other chemicals is required.
ER320LR: Similar to ER320, except that the carbon, silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur levels are kept at lower levels as well as the columbium and manganese being recommended or specified at a narrower range. Residuals are limited to reduce the possibility of micro fissuring. This alloy is often used for welding type 320 stainless steels.
ER330: Used in welding 330 stainless, cast and wrought material of similar analysis. Excellent strength; excellent heat and scale resistance up to 800F.
ER347: Recommended for welding AISI 347 and 321. The weld metal has good resistance to general corrosion. Columbium stabilization provides assurance against intergranular corrosion. ER347 is suitable for applications where welds are subjected to high temperatures (750+F).
ER347SI: Suitable for joining stainless steels of the 18Cr / 8Ni / Cb and 18Cr / 8Ni / Ti types. This grade is recommended if the weld metal is to be subjected to high temperatures above 750F.
ER409: The nominal composition of this weld metal is 12% Chromium with Ti added as a stabilizer. This material often is used to weld bare metal of similar composition.
ER409CB: Same as ER409 except that columbium (niobium) is used instead of titanium to achieve similar results. Oxidation losses across the arc generally are lower. Applications are the same as those of ER409 filler metals.
ER410: Used for welding types 403, 405, 410, 414 and 416. Also an overlay on carbon steels for corrosion, erosion and abrasion resistance.
ER410NiMo: Used primarily to weld cast and wrought material of similar chemical composition. Recommend using preheat and interpass temperature of not less than 300F. Post-weld heat treatment should not exceed 1150F, as higher temperatures may result in hardening.
ER420: Similar to type 410 except for a higher carbon content. Primary use is for overlaying applications where a higher hardness provides excellent abrasion resistance along with corrosion and erosion resistance.
ER430: Used for welding type 430 stainless steel.
ER502: Used for welding 502 base metal, frequently tube or pipe. Preheating and post-weld treatment are required.
ER505: Used for welding tube or piping of similar composition. Preheating and post-weld heat treatment are required.
ER630: Designed primarily for welding ASTM A564 type 630 and some other precipitation-hardening stainless steels. The composition is modified to prevent the formation of ferrite networks in the martensitic microstructure which has a great effect on mechanical properties. The weld metal may be used either as welded, welded and precipitation hardened, or welding and solution treated.
ER2209: Intended to weld duplex stainless steels. The weld metal exhibits high tensile strength and improved resistance to stress, corrosion, cracking and pitting. The wire exhibits a lower ferrite compared to that of base metal for improved weldability.
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Old 11-10-2005, 11:23 PM
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Where did you find that Brian?
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Old 11-11-2005, 06:46 AM
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here is for you guys welding chromoly 4130
TIG WELD 4130!
The Lincoln Electric Company, Welding Services. June 2000



Yes, you can TIG weld 4130 tubing up to .120" wall thickness easily with the techniques and procedures described in this bulletin. Answered are the top ten most frequently asked questions about TIG welding 4130 Chrome-Moly. These attached procedures apply to typical sporting applications such as experimental airplanes, racing car frames, roll cages, go-carts, bicycles, and motorcycle frames. The suitability of these techniques and procedures must be evaluated for your specific application.

Q. Can I weld 4130 using the TIG process?
A. Yes, 4130 Chrome-Moly has been TIG welded in the aerospace and aircraft industries for years. As with all welding, proper procedures and techniques must be followed.

Q. Do I need to pre-heat?
A. Thin wall tubing (< 0.120" wall) applications do not typically require the normal 300F to 400F pre-heat to obtain acceptable results. However, tubing should be at room temperature (70F) or above before welding
. What filler material do I use?
A. Although there are several good filler materials, ER80S-D2, is one you should consider. This filler material is capable of producing welds that approximate the strength of 4130. ER-70S-2 is an acceptable alternative to ER80S-D2, as is ER70S-6, although the weld strength will be slightly lower.

Q. When I use ER70S-2 filler material, do I give up strength for elongation?
A. Yes. The filler material, when diluted with the parent material, will typically undermatch the 4130. However, with the proper joint design (such as cluster or gusset, for example), the cross-sectional area and linear inches of weld can compensate for the reduced weld deposit strength.

Q. Why is 4130 filler metal not recommended?
A. 4130 filler typically is used for applications where the weld will be heat treated. Due to its higher hardness and reduced elongation, it is not recommended for sporting applications such as experimental airplanes, race car frames, roll cages, etc.

Q. Can I weld 4130 using any other filler metals?
A. Some fabricators prefer to use austenitic stainless steel fillers to weld 4130 tubing. This is acceptable provided 310 or 312 stainless steel fillers are used. Other stainless steel fillers can cause cracking. Stainless filler material is typically more expensive.

Q. Do I need to heat treat (stress relieve) 4130 after welding?
A. Thin wall tubing normally does not require stress relief. For parts thicker than .120", stress-relieving is recommended and 1,100F is the optimum temperature for tubing applications. An Oxy/Acetylene torch with neutral flame can be used. It should be oscillated to avoid hot spots
Q. Do I have to pre-clean 4130 material?
A. Remove surface scale and oils with mild abrasives and acetone. Wipe to remove all oils and lubricants. All burrs should be removed with a hand scraper or de-burring tool. Better welding results with clean materials.

Q. Do I need to back-purge 4130 material?
A. Backpurging is not normally necessary, although some fabricators do. It will not hurt the weld and may improve the root pass of some welds.
.

Q. Should I quench the metal after I finish welding?
A. ABSOLUTELY NOT! Rapid quenching of the metal will create problems such as cracking and lamellar tearing. Always allow the weld to slow cool.

MORE

WELDING SPECIFICATION: Aircraft and Motorsports

GENERAL INFORMATION

Remove all oxides and burrs within 3" of weld area.
Acetone wipe to remove all cutting oils.
Assemble and tack weld in joint in a minimum of four (4) places with TIG.
Tubing should be at minimum temperature of 70F (room temperature.
TIG weld per parameters specified using Lincoln's Precision TIG: The Power To Perform. 185, 275 or 375.
EXAMPLE WELD SCHEDULE INFORMATION

PARENT MATERIAL: 4130
MATERIAL CONDITION: Condition (N)
MATERIAL THICKNESS: .035" Wall Thickness
FILLER MATERIAL: ER80S-D2 .035" Diameter
JOINT TYPE: 90 Tube to Tube.
JOINT PREP: Abrasive Clean/Acetone Wipe
JOINT GAP: .000-.010
CURRENT TYPE: D.C.E.N.
AMPERAGE: 20 - 40 amps
VOLTAGE: 9-12 Volts
TORCH TYPE: D.C.E.N. ( DC Electrode Negative )
CUP SIZE: Gas Lens 7/16" Orifice
CUP TYPE: Ceramic
TUNGSTEN TYPE: 2% Thoriated
TUNGSTEN SIZE: 1/16" Diameter
TUNGSTEN SHAPE: Pointed
TORCH GAS: Argon
FLOW RATE: 15-25 C.F.H.
BACK-UP GAS: Argon
FLOW RATE: 5-10 C.F.H.
TACKING SEQUENCE: 4-Places (min.)
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Old 11-11-2005, 09:32 AM
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Louie, can't remember. Some welding supply companies websites I think, but I rewrote a fair portion to clean it up.
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Old 11-11-2005, 09:44 AM
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Use of stainless filler is interesting for 4130.....never heard that before. I wonder what the benefit would be....more ductility, corrosion resistance, ?
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Old 11-15-2005, 10:42 AM
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Typically to prevent cracking when welding dissimilar materials. Mild steel to 4130 is an example.
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Old 03-03-2006, 11:54 AM
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Info on what to weld with what is fairly easy to find (and in some cases somewhat up for debate, for example, Ive never actually seen anyone that carries 310 and 312 and usually see the assorted 308s recommended for that same application), what would actually be more helpful is if someone found a good source of some of these in smaller (say <11lb) spool sizes.

For example, most localwelding shops will have 308 in stock but Ive never seen 309 anywhere where you didnt have to order it and even then its difficult to actually get into your hands on it. Id love to get my hands on some 309L Si (or even better, if they make such a thing some 312Si)but Ive never actually seen it anyplace, mail order or otherwise, and Ive looked for 409Ti and was only able to find it at industrial suppliers in minimum of 45lb spools (what am I going to do with 45lbs of welding wire???)

Last edited by Silverback; 02-13-2007 at 02:42 AM.
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Old 04-25-2006, 03:54 PM
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Originally Posted by Silverback
Info on what to weld with what is fairly easy to find (and in some cases somewhat up for debate, for example, Ive never actually seen anyone that carries 310 and 312 and usually see the assorted 308s recommended for that same application), what would actually be more helpful is if someone found a good source of some of these in smaller (say <11lb) spool sizes.

For example, most localwelding shops will have 309 in stock but Ive never seen 308 anywhere where you didnt have to order it and even then its difficult to actually get into your hands on it. Id love to get my hands on some 308L Si (or even better, if they make such a thing some 312Si)but Ive never actually seen it anyplace, mail order or otherwise, and Ive looked for 409Ti and was only able to find it at industrial suppliers in minimum of 45lb spools (what am I going to do with 45lbs of welding wire???)
I just read this sticky. What is funny is that I just got back from the welding supply and have some 308si in my hands that they had in stock. Luck really, someone special ordered 20 lbs and only took 15. I got the other 5. They always have 308L in stock though.

Brandon

Last edited by xfactor_pitbulls; 04-25-2006 at 04:21 PM.
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Old 06-02-2006, 09:23 AM
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(what am I going to do with 45lbs of welding wire???)
alot of welding....
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Old 02-09-2007, 06:07 PM
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Q. Should I quench the metal after I finish welding?
A. ABSOLUTELY NOT! Rapid quenching of the metal will create problems such as cracking and lamellar tearing. Always allow the weld to slow cool.

just like OCC...
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Old 02-13-2007, 02:44 AM
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Originally Posted by aggiez28
alot of welding....
yea, but the reason that I'd want it would strictly be to deal with all the bits of 409 exhaust that I run across. that being said, unless I was to go commercial, I'd be suprised if I'd go through an 11lb spool of the stuff in 10-20 years...
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Old 09-22-2007, 01:43 PM
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You Can Weld 4230 With All Of The Rods And Fillers You Have Already Mentioned --but As Soon As You Are Done Wrap A Piece Of Insulation Around It And You Shouldn't Have To Heat Treat It
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Old 10-14-2007, 11:12 PM
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what's 4230 and what doesn it have to do with the rest of this thread?
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Old 03-22-2010, 12:23 PM
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I see tons of build threads on this site and other sites, and I noticed some of the nice stainless steel builds has that rainbow of colors on the welds. How do you get that? I am welding 304SS with ER308L and it looks like my mild steel welds (just silver).
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Old 05-01-2010, 06:42 PM
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Originally Posted by RealQuick View Post
I see tons of build threads on this site and other sites, and I noticed some of the nice stainless steel builds has that rainbow of colors on the welds. How do you get that? I am welding 304SS with ER308L and it looks like my mild steel welds (just silver).
you have one or two problems,one maybe too much heat or moving too slow,the rainbow look means you have the right combination.another thing,are you tig,mig or stick welding this?
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Old 05-01-2010, 09:36 PM
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Originally Posted by Davo346 View Post
you have one or two problems,one maybe too much heat or moving too slow,the rainbow look means you have the right combination.another thing,are you tig,mig or stick welding this?
Tig.
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Old 05-02-2010, 09:43 AM
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Originally Posted by RealQuick View Post
Tig.
you are using 100% argon i suppose,then your problem is too much heat or not enough speed or not enough filler metal to keep up with the heat,when that bead is gold its perfect,when a stainless tig weld is black or silver you burnt all of the goodness out of the stainless,if you know what i mean.some poeple tig a little faster than others,so you need to find your own sweet spot to set the amperage.
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Old 05-04-2010, 11:18 AM
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yup too hot and/or too slow...are you using a gas lens?
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Old 05-04-2010, 01:20 PM
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I am using the torch/equipment that came with my Miller 165 Diversion:

12.5 ft (3.6 m) LS17 Weldcraft TIG torch with backcap, ceramic gas cup, 3/32 in (2.4 mm) collet and collet body, and 2% ceriated tungsten

I have played around with amps from 35-65 when welding 16ga tubing.
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Old 05-04-2010, 01:38 PM
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Originally Posted by RealQuick View Post
I am using the torch/equipment that came with my Miller 165 Diversion:

12.5 ft (3.6 m) LS17 Weldcraft TIG torch with backcap, ceramic gas cup, 3/32 in (2.4 mm) collet and collet body, and 2% ceriated tungsten

I have played around with amps from 35-65 when welding 16ga tubing.

switch to a gas lens if at all possible...you'll get much better argon shielding of the puddle
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